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Final Diary Entries and Last Letters of Ensign Masanori Ōishi

At 1535 on April 28, 1945, Ensign Masanori Ōishi took off from Kushira Air Base as pilot in a three-man Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber (Allied code name of Kate) carrying an 800-kg bomb and died in a special (suicide) attack off Okinawa at the age of 22. He was a member of the Kamikaze Special Attack Corps Hachiman [1] Shinchū Squadron from Usa Air Group. He was from Saga Prefecture, attended Tōkyō Imperial University to study law, and was a member of the 14th Class of the Navy's Flight Reserve Students (Hikō Yobi Gakusei).

Ōishi wrote the following final diary entries dated March 23 to April 15, 1945. He recorded no entries from April 16 until his death on April 28, 1945. From March 18 to 23, 1945, he was at Miho Air Base in Shimane Prefecture, and the diary entries below begin with his return from Miho to Usa Air Base in Ōita Prefecture. In several places the diary refers to kutai, which is the Japanese word for a four-plane tactical formation. Individual planes usually are referred to by number (e.g., No. 618) in his diary.

March 23

As usual the weather was poor. Usa was clear. After 0900 the carrier attack bomber unit took off, and at 1000 the carrier dive bomber unit took off. The air currents were bad. Along the way we crossed over the Chūgoku Mountains and returned to Usa.

Reserve students and others at the airfield came out to meet us. They formed a line for us, and there was great joy. When I think back again, 30 minutes after we took off on the 18th, Grumman F4F fighters strafed the airfield and launched rocket bombs for 30 minutes. Also, in the afternoon the airfield suffered an attack, and the concrete aircraft hangars are full of holes. After returning to the deck, they talked of the Grumman strafing, and we talked about our life at Miho. We got along very well together.

Also in the afternoon the Himeji special attack unit came. All of our Usa Air Group Type 97 Carrier Attack Bombers (Allied code name of Kate) were organized into a special attack unit. I also was added as an honored member. I will make a taiatari (body-crashing) attack on an enemy aircraft carrier with a bomb-laden Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber although it is old. Without thinking of my life, I expect death first. I desire to make a jibaku (self-explosion) attack where I will be a bomb. I am happy if I can bring peace for the Empire. When compared to the life of my family and nation, it is light.

April 1

Clear. The 10th Air Fleet Wake Unit finally received an order to the front. The Wake Unit 1st Hachiman Gokō Squadron was formed. Tomorrow they plan to depart. There are a total of six aircraft with Lieutenant Fujii as Commander, Ensigns Wakaomi and Takahashi as kutai [2] leaders, and three instructors. Aircraft from Himeji Air Group will be added to these. Also, they will send Ensigns Sugimoto and Ueno from among us to the special attack squadrons of carrier attack bombers. Bombs will be attached to Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Trainers and Type 99 Carrier Dive Bomber (Allied code name of Val) Trainers though they are old, and they will carry out hisshi hitchū (certain-death, sure-hit) taiatari attacks.

At dinnertime they drank a toast to the two ensigns of the carrier attack bombers. In the evening, the carrier dive bomber students went to the gunroom [3] and attended a farewell party held by the training officers. All officers of both the carrier attack bombers and carrier dive bombers are reserve officers who are our seniors. Now we must be inspired by capabilities of reserve officers.

April 2

Clear. At 0700, first the carrier dive bombers and then the carrier attack bombers took off. Everyone saw them off at the airfield. At a departure where they would not return, the divinely brave figures of these seniors went smiling while each wearing a hachimaki (headband) dyed with a rising sun (red circle) on front. They had rising suns stuck on their right arms and life jackets, and cherry blossoms were attached to the front of their uniforms. I also will make a crash dive while carrying an 800-kg bomb. There is only a difference of time.

The carrier dive bombers only soon turned back due to poor visibility. At noon they took off again. The three planes of Ensign Takahashi, Ensign Wakaomi, and one instructor had engines in poor condition, and their departures were postponed until tomorrow.

April 5

Usa Air Group has 10 planes, and Himeji Air Group Shirasagi Unit has 14 planes. At 1730, the formation of the 3rd special attack group was announced, and I also had the honor of joining as a member. The observer Ensign Onodera and the radioman Petty Officer 2nd Class Kubota are my fellow crewmen who will die together with me in the same manner. Lieutenant Yamada is the Commander, and there are four students, namely Murase, Tahira, Fujiwara, and Ōishi. We each received a hachimaki with a rising sun as a good luck charm.

With a leave from the base, I went on the 1949 train to the Hisatsune home in Kamegawa. We woke them as they had already gone to sleep, and we spent the night there. Today Ensign Nakagaki came at about 1500 since he was added to the carrier attack bomber 3rd special attack group, and he returned to base at 1947. He was eagerly waiting for me and had said, "It is the time for Ōishi also to come, but …" I went to bed at midnight.

April 6

I got up at 0400. I received ohagi [4] with thoughtful kanten (gelatin from native red seaweed called tengusa). I received perfume from Tomoe. I returned to base on the 0450 train.

Furthermore, last night I wrote my farewell to five persons: Yotsuya, Principal Fujii, Konomi-sensei, Nishino, and Hirozawa.

It was decided suddenly that today the 3rd carrier attack bomber unit and the carrier dive bomber unit would make a sortie. The schedule was that it was intended that we go on the morning of the 8th, so we had a somewhat unhurried attitude. I had told Hisagaki that perhaps I could come visit him this evening, and then suddenly in a hurry we were making preparations. However, the preparation of five planes was not in time for a sortie. The crew (14 men) for the five planes would take off in a Douglas transport plane. On top of our flight caps we each wore a white hachimaki dyed with a rising sun on front. We had rising suns stuck on our right arms and life jackets, and cherry blossoms were attached in front. With military swords, I had joy in my heart with figures who seemed like warriors of old. We shook hands with our comrades and bid farewell. I received a memento from a Yokaren (Preparatory Flight Training Program) graduate, and I gave him the mascot doll that I received from Yoshiko. Until the end I will keep her handmade sewn bag with me when I go.

At 0900, the crewmen who would make a sortie assembled in the officers' room. In addition to the Commander in attendance, there were toasts. The Commander told us, "Now at the beginning of Operation Ten-Gō, I was honored with a wise Imperial message from His Majesty the Emperor. Be strong." This confirmed our resolve even more.

Before takeoff I suddenly wrote a waka [5] poem. I asked a comrade to paste it to my photo album.

Waiting anxiously, worthwhile for Emperor
Today's joy to fly as shield for Him

Grumman fighters advanced south from Usa to Kumamoto and arrived at Kushira.

It is expected that today at 1300 the general attack will commence. The 1st and 2nd Gokō Squadrons along with Himeji Air Group, with each plane carrying securely an 800-kg bomb, made sorties raising clouds of dust and divided into four shōtai (sections). I took the chalk of Lieutenant Junior Grade Kijima. In total there were 30 planes. Next the special attack Tenzan Attack Bombers (Allied code name of Jill) made sorties, and next the Tenzan unit for the 251st Air Group and the night torpedo attack planes took off.

Radio telegraph messages came one after another from the Usa Gokō Squadron. Messages from Ensign Kijima and Lieutenant Narita said they would succeed in their taiatari attacks. "I am full of determination with divine assistance," "make formation for crash drives," "attack target B (battleship)." As for Lieutenant Fujii, after several messages in succession of "hi" (hitai - evading enemy interceptor aircraft), after 6 o'clock the message was "making crash dive on A" (aircraft carrier). Besides these, there were several person who had telegraph messages of "I am making crash dive."

Masataka, I cannot contain my joy about your starting middle school. I was thinking of something special as a congratulatory gift, but I was not able due to being very busy. I congratulate you with money inserted in my diary. Forgive me.

April 7

First there was deployment. Carrier planes from the enemy task force attacked Miyazaki. No. 618 was scheduled (0800 departure) on an important matter to Usa, but for that reason it was postponed. Yesterday all planes of the torpedo attack plane unit returned.

When dying, one could not die in silence and had to die saying at least a word of farewell. Therefore, it was necessary to pay attention to maintenance of the radio telegraph. The condition of communications of the Himeji Air Group was poor. Since there were not radio telegraphs in wingmen's planes, it was expected that they be able to confirm battle results. Accordingly, in view of battle lessons learned from the 1st general attack, planes that are flying as wingmen also should have radio telegraphs installed. Radio telegraphs were loaded on a Douglas transport plane, and it immediately headed toward Kushira.

We were without five planes because yesterday we rode in a Douglas transport plane to Kushira, so it was decided that we would return to Usa. However, the weather had worsened and rain also was falling, and the Douglas transport plane also had little desire to fly there. We decided to return by land to get the planes. We departed Kushira Station at 1900, and we spent the night in Miyakonojō. Ensign Koida and his crew did not return since there was one spare plane (No. 623), so the crews of four planes went back.

April 8

At 0730 I departed from where I had stayed, and at 1800 I arrived at Yanagigaura Station. I was told that my Father and Mother had come to the base yesterday. I went quickly to Kamegawa, but they already had returned home and would be back later.

April 9

At 0726, I left Kamegawa and returned to base. In the morning and afternoon, there was a stand-by where we had to be available immediately. Also, we wiped the planes' windshields. Even though the planes were in concrete hangars, it was inconvenient with the rain leaking in due to holes from several days of Grumman machine-gun attacks. In the evening, I went to the home of Ueno where Ensign Hiroaki Itō was lodging, and the family served a nice meal for us. Besides me, there were Itō, Ozawa, and Izumi. Our hosts told us that we were patriotic and enthusiastic warriors, "It is our long-cherished desire to devote complete our family's goods on behalf of you gods." They had levelheaded opinions one after another. "Even though you go to make an attack, certainly return. And isn't it clear that we'll drink again with you all in good health? Absolutely do not hurry to die."

Even though it was planned for me to spend the night, there was a telephone call from the air group, and I returned to base.

April 10

Six students and about ten trainees who had received special attack training and did not have any planes allocated to them went by land to Kushira. At 0745, we saw them off.

I visited Usa Jingū (Shrine). When I was going by bus, it started to rain heavily. It stopped, and rain did not fall until I returned to base. I appreciate divine protection. In the afternoon I went to the home of Dr. Honda where Ozawa was lodging, and they held a splendid farewell party. They were extremely kind. I spent the night there.

April 11

At 0630, we gathered together in the officers' room, and we a meal together with the Commander. We took off at 8 o'clock. Honda, his gracious mother, and others saw us off. The observer in No. 303 was Ensign Onodera, and we were in the 3rd plane of the 1st Kutai.

As we were going, it became more and more cloudy, and the 1st plane swerved greatly. Also, who has competence when not flying a plane for a long time? We passed through the skies above Kurume and Izumi.

Along the way lubricating oil was sticking to the windshield, and I could not see well. Visibility and air currents were good when we reached southern Kyūshū. I arrived safely. When returning to the apron, there was a strong crosswind that spun me to the left. It was the first time to experience this.

From 1300 there was a talk by the Flight Operations Officer and Lieutenant Yamada to persons scheduled for tomorrow's attack. I have a heavy responsibility as 3rd Kutai Leader. It would be easy for me to die alone, but I have the other planes. It is expected that the 2nd Kikusui Operation will commence tomorrow morning.

The Wake Unit took off starting at 11 o'clock. They would crash dive while fighter escorts opened up the path ahead. The objective was A (aircraft carrier) or B (battleship). Since many transport ships were empty, we were directed to choose one that is fully loaded and then make a crash dive. Besides this, there was were general instructions about piloting, and Lieutenant Yamada talked concerning navigation. Since I could not sleep, I did not know anything that was said due to my nodding off.

At 16 o'clock the torpedo attack unit of Tenzan Attack Bombers and Type 97 Carrier Attack Bombers took off. Then there was an inspection by the 10th Air Fleet Commander of Special Attack Corps members from Usa Air Group and Himeji Air Group. One by one each man gave his name and saluted the officer. In the evening from 7 o'clock there was a party in the officers' room. We rested earlier than usual. Naturally I took a bath and changed my clothes.

Ensign Watanabe was saying to me, "Ōishi, you have not changed at all from how you are always. Your eye color is different from other people, and you are restless. Of course you are different than a natural person." When he especially was chiding me, I had to all the more focus on tomorrow's hitchū (sure hit).

April 12

It is the day of the 2nd general attack called the 2nd Kikusui Operation, which follows the 1st Kikusui Operation on the 6th. That is, this day Navy Ensign Masanori Ōishi will shatter as a jewel (gyokusai) at Okinawa for the Empire as the end of his 24 years [6]. Now I do not have anything like a will. There is nothing to do but my usual words and actions and a letter to everyone about these. Even though I should be ashamed for not having done anything for Father and Mother who gave me love for 24 years, at this critical time for the Empire, my dying as a Special Attack Corps member in this greatest military operation is the greatest honor and also can be said to be a great act of filial piety. I regret that I was not able to read "Biography" that Father devoted himself to complete.

The pilot of my 2nd plane is Petty Officer 2nd Class Yoshiaki Mizukami, who is a person I remember from my days at Namazuta. He told me that his father Muneyoshi passed away, and in the 4th year of middle school it came about that he entered the Otsu Yokaren (Preparatory Flight Training Program). Now along with being surprised at the unexpected meeting, I am happy to die together with him.

Also, I met Fujita from my time at Tomiyama. He is a member of the 251st Air Group. I believe in eternal indestructibility and certain victory for the Empire of Japan. When I believe in this way, I will die happily. It is my long-cherished desire that now I will participate in the aerial battle off Okinawa that will be part of the turning point for the Empire in its offensive movements and attacks.

Long live His Majesty the Emperor.

Masataka, take care.

Yoshiko, be a good wife. Be prepared for anything with your husband.

I thank Fujii, Kikuchi, and other teachers who kindly helped me.

Father and Mother,

For good or for bad, today I was able to survive another day, and I again write to you. I will record today's events.

At 8 o'clock in the morning there was a meeting held around Lieutenant Junior Grade Yoshii about the operation. At 10 o'clock there was a line-up at the Commander's Office. First, there was the naming by the Commander, "I name the Usa special attack unit of the 2nd Hachiman Gokō Squadron." Then we three crewmen each drank a little sake from one cup before going into battle. Moreover, I was truly happy that they had my favorite food, kanten (gelatin from native red seaweed called tengusa) on yōkan (sweet jellied red bean paste). Together with this, I fondly recalled that Mother and Younger Sister would frequently make kanten for me. Then a press member took a photograph of us in the order that we would make sorties. At 1130, first 6 planes from Hyakurihara took off, and then 12 planes from Usa took off by kutai. We took off in No. 303 as the 1st plane in the 3rd Kutai. However, from when I was circling on the lead course, oil started to splash onto the windshield. Since it splashed more and more onto the windshield when I passed over the airfield, I indicated to the other planes by blackboard, "Oil leaking, will return to airfield." When I turned toward the airfield and looked back, the other planes were advancing as before. Therefore, not being my real intention to return in this way, I again followed after them. I could not see ahead at all through the windshield, so reluctantly I dropped my bomb (from 1,000 meters) and returned.

Each time a person who I met talked to me seemed to pierce me to the heart, even more so since I was the 1st plane. As for my kutai, the 2nd plane afterward turned back, and only two planes went toward the battle. In today's attack it seems that many planes were shot down by enemy fighters. There were a considerable number that sent a succession of "hi" (hitai - avoiding enemy interceptor aircraft) messages. Also, there were only but a few planes that sent a message at the attack target. After 3 o'clock no messages at all came in. It seems that many did not succeed and vainly made crash dives into the sea.

My three comrades Ensigns Murase, Fujiwara, and Horinouchi also finally died, and I alone have survived again and am writing. I utterly cannot express what is in my heart.

Tomorrow Ensign Tahira will leave. Only I will remain.

With regards to what I felt today and the matter of taking care of the plane's maintenance, the flight instruments absolutely must be working well. The temperature gauge for plane No. 303's outside tubing that was splattering oil on the windshield was in bad condition, and the temperature was fluctuating between 100 and 150 degrees. Altitude is important, but course-keeping is number one. Next, today's leading of my wingmen's planes was the poorest.

April 13

Last night the formation of the 3rd attack group was announced. Usa has four planes, and I was left out. They improved special attacks with radar deception [7]. Finally I spent a day on stand-by.

April 14

Four planes from Usa Air Group departed for dummy communication and radar deception. All planes returned to base.

April 15

Several dozen Grumman fighters and Sikorsky flying boats made attacks. They launched rocket bombs and strafed with machine-gun fire. Type 1 Attack Bombers (Allied code name of Betty) and Tenzan Attack Bombers were destroyed in the attacks. No. 623 was destroyed by fire. Just before the air attack five planes came from Usa, and one was destroyed. It was the No. 3 dive bomber that came piloted by Ozawa. The 3rd Kikusui Operation was announced.

On April 25, Ōishi's parents visited him in Kushira and stayed two nights [8]. He wrote the following letter to them after their departure:

Dear Father and Mother,

On the occasion of going on a man's final ambitious undertaking, let me express words of farewell to everyone faraway.

About 4 p.m. tomorrow on the 28th, I will fall as the end of my 24 years. Definitely please do not grieve. My heart on the night before the sortie is calm, and there is not anything that has changed in the smallest way from usual. If anything, with the disgrace of having turned back in the 2nd special attack on the 12th, I am filled to overflowing with a heroic spirit that now I can carry out the responsibility.

Now I got my last shave from Ensign Koida. Since it is finished, I again will continue. I went in No. 353 as the kutai leader's plane (Ensign Onodera in middle seat, Petty Officer 2nd Class Inudō as radio operator). Since I got the long-awaited No. 3 carrier dive bomber (not flown this plane type even one time), I truly felt excited about only that. At 1220 I will take off (at 1530 if there is an air attack in morning). I am determined to make a thrilling crash die on an enemy transport ship near Okinawa. Even if along the way I fall or the battle results are small, aren't you happy that young men will continue special attacks one after another and warriors' lives will pile up more and more to be able to protect to the end Yamato Shimane (Japan)? Now let me look back for a short time.

Our meeting at Isshinkan [9] surely was our last meeting. I was able to see your faces and also ask you about news regarding the Takeuchi couple and the situation at home. Also, thinking of my regrets, I was able to read "Aranami koete" ("Overcoming raging waves"), and I have not the slightest regret in my heart. I am only satisfied. The mystery of fate truly gave me this opportunity before my sortie, and they are circumstances where I stand in awe of divine assistance. You experienced entering an air-raid shelter due to air attacks on the rainy day and eating too many kashiwa (rice cakes wrapped in oak leaves). Because of this, you caught a cold and upset your stomach.

While I am thankful for having been raised for 24 years with your extraordinary hardships, I will go to render to you the greatest act of filial piety to one's parents. In a short time I will return to you and look after you. I thought that this will repay even a ten-thousandth of what you did for me, and that will not overlook Japan's war situation. A destiny has been created for all young men who must sacrifice their lives for the Empire. Now I have experienced deeply the preciousness of this destiny.

Although I pass away, there is Masataka who will be great, and also there is Lieutenant Takeuchi. My only family will continue later year by year. Afterward there will be no thought of me. Masataka is a person who will surpass me, and he is someone who has a promising future. Please live your lives after this by giving your total love to Masataka and placing your hopes on him.

I display my resolve again with the poem of my desire when I departed from Usa:

Waiting anxiously, worthwhile for Emperor
Today's joy to fly as shield for Him

In the center of an all-out war of the Japanese people to safeguard the kokutai (national entity), I bravely will die in the sea at Okinawa as a member of the Kamikaze Special Attack Corps. Although my body will fall and go the the grave together with an enemy ship, through my spirit's living on forever for the divine war to protect the country, kamikaze (divine wind) will arise and blow in the four seas around Japan. With my long-cherished desire for Japan's prosperity and utterly defeat of the barbarians (saying of Yoshida Shōin [10]), my exceptional life of 24 years will end with my death in battle. I earnestly hope that this opportune day comes quickly to restore prior fortunes and to stop the offensive.

Long live His Majesty the Emperor
April 27, 1945, 2000

Tadaharu Takeuchi was Ōishi's buntai (squad) leader when in training at Izumi Air Base. Through this connection he married Ōishi's younger sister Yoshiko. The following is Ōishi's final letter to Takeuchi and his younger sister Yoshiko.

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Takeuchi,

I will go shortly before you. I wanted to see the sweet scene of you two in newly-married life, but it is regrettable that I cannot. Of course I heard some amusing things from Father and Mother, and please treat with love my younger sister who cannot do anything with her clumsiness.

It is quite reasonable if I ask you to call me Older Brother, but all the same I am a little embarrassed. Please do not call me that yet. During my first sortie, lubricating oil leaked all over my windshield, so along the way I headed for the airfield. From my idea of responsibility for the shōtai [11] leader's plane, I again tried to follow after my planes, but increasingly I was not able to go, so fighting back my tears I dropped the bomb and turned back. I clearly understood the plane's malfunctioning condition was different between on the ground and in the sky.

Ensign Fujiwara from the same 7th Buntai died in a special attack on the 12th. Also, during March when we fled to Miho No. 2 Air Base because of an attack by enemy aircraft, Ensign Kaneda went into a stall right after takeoff and died. During the one-hour flight time here, when we took off I was a real novice who two or three times had the formation fly together by instruments, but I did it as a bold daredevil who does not know fear. I will be true until the end.

He wrote the following last letter to his younger brother Masataka, who was the author of a 2007 book about his brother titled Pen o tsurugi ni kaete: Tokkō gakutohei kaigun shōi Ōishi Masanori (Replacing the pen with the sword: Special attack student soldier Ensign Masanori Ōishi):

Dear Masataka,

You were a good younger brother. You truly are very cute. I will be fine as a Lieutenant [12]. It I do not go soon, the prey will disappear. The Yankees' scared faces will be quite delightful.

Even though I will not be there, please live in high spirits so you can do greater than I. Give good assistance to Mother. I wanted to get a glance of your handsome figure as a middle school student. I will go leaving behind my Navy uniform.

Ōishi wrote the following additional last words to his parents:

Konomi-sensei, my kind teacher at Namazuta Elementary School
Fujii-sensei, my kind teacher at Takeda Middle School
Kikuchi-sensei, my kind teacher at Tomiyama High School
Ueki-sensei, my kind teacher at Tomiyama High School

During my student life, I received especially great kindness from the four teachers listed above. I express my warm thanks to them.

As for your child's education, please raise him to work really hard to be a capable person as a foundation for the Empire's protection.

Now I have no regrets.

Iwao Yotsuya (Tōkyō Law), my best friend in my student days, please go forward in high spirits in your beliefs.


Diary entries and letters translated by Bill Gordon
September 2019

The final diary entries and letters come from Ōishi (2007, 160-181). The biographical information in the first paragraph comes from Kaigun Hikō Yobi Gakusei Dai 14 Ki Kai (1966, 40) and Osuo (2005, 117, 219).


Ensign Masanori Ōishi on
morning of special attack sortie

Notes

1. Hachiman is the Japanese god of military power. Usa City in Ōita Prefecture has the first Hachiman Shrine, which was established in the early 8th century.

2. A kutai is typically a formation of four planes.

3. A gunroom is a mess for junior officers (below rank of lieutenant) on a naval vessel or in this case a Navy base.

4. Ohagi is a rice ball coated with sweetened red beans, soybean flour, or sesame and salt.

5. His waka (meaning literally "poem in Japanese") was a 31-syllable poem with a syllable pattern of 5-7-5-7-7.

6. The traditional Japanese method of counting age, as in much of East Asia, regards a child as age one at birth and adds an additional year on each New Year's day thereafter. This explains why the letter indicates his age as 24 whereas Kaigun Hikō Yobi Gakusei Dai 14 Ki Kai (1966, 40) gives his age as 22.

7. The "radar deception" was the use of chaff (strips of aluminum foil) to produce false blips on a ship's radar that was trying to locate incoming planes.

8. Ōishi 2007, 175.

9. Isshinkan is a ryokan (inn) in Kushira that is still in business in 2019.

10. Yoshida Shōin (1830-1859) strongly advocated the Emperor's restoration to power, which challenged the ruling shogunate.

11. A shōtai or "flight" in English is a group of three to six aircraft.

12. Lieutenant refers to Ōishi's rank after a two-rank promotion with a death by special attack.

Sources Cited

Kaigun Hikō Yobi Gakusei Dai 14 Ki Kai (Navy Flight Reserve Students 14th Class Association), ed. 1966. Ā dōki no sakura: Kaerazaru seishun no shuki (Ah, cherry blossoms of same class: Writings of youth that would not return). Tōkyō: Mainichi Shinbunsha.

Ōishi, Masataka. 2007. Pen o tsurugi ni kaete: Tokkō gakutohei kaigun shōi Ōishi Masanori (Replacing the pen with the sword: Special attack student soldier Ensign Masanori Ōishi). Fukuoka: Nishinippon Shinbunsha.

Osuo, Kazuhiko. 2005. Tokubetsu kōgekitai no kiroku (kaigun hen) (Record of special attack corps (Navy)). Tōkyō: Kōjinsha.